16. Viden og vidensrepræsentationer med udgangspunkt i forskellige typer af repræsentationer fx. Billedlige vs. sproglige/propotionelle.

Eysenck, W. M. & Keane, T. M. (2005): Cognitive Psychology: A Student’s Hand-book (5. udg.) Kap 9. Hove (UK): Psychology Press.

Gazzaniga, S. M, et. al. (2002). Cognitive Neuro-science. The Biology of the Mind (2. udg.). Kap. 6. Kap. 9. New York: Norton.

Hvordan er verden repræsenteret i vores hoveder?

Interne repræsentationer: 

Eksterne repræsentationer:

Analog repræsentation: er ofte grafisk som kort, diagrammer og billeder. De er modalitetsbundne og specifikke, og der eksisterer et en-til-en forhold til ydre verden. Former, speciale, relationer osv. er repræsenteret som det er i vores omgivelser. Et eksempel på en analog repræsentation er billeder. De indeholder konkrete og spatiale træk (eks. form) som er lig med trækkene ved det virkelighedsobjekt som billedet repræsenterer. De er stærk associeret med den visuelle modalitet.

Evidens: når folk bliver bedt om at se om en figur der er drejet er magen til en anden figur, er der en propotionel sammenhæng mellem tid og antal mentale rotationer. Hvilket henviser til at vi forstiller os det i billeder. 

Symbolsk repræsentation: forholdet mellem et symbol og dets repræsentation. Dette forhold er arbitrært – fx ord, skemaer, propositioner. Her kan vi altså beskrive.

Et eksempel på en symbolsk repræsentation er ord. De indeholder abstrakt og kategorisk information om den repræsenterede ting/forhold.

Propotionelle repræsentationer:

Den semantiske enhed, som koder mening, kaldes en proposition. Den er symbolsk. Propositionelle repræsentationer er eksplicitte, diskrete og abstrakte størrelser, der repræsenterer hjernens forestillingsindhold. De repræsenterer konceptuelle objekter og relationer i en form som ikke er specifik for noget sprog eller nogen modalitet (lige meget om det er syn, lugt osv.).

Man har lavet et logisk system, som kan bruges til at udtrykke propositioner, kaldet predicate calculus. Man kan forestille sig, at hjernens indhold kan være objekt-lignende størrelser, som er relateret til hinanden på forskellige måder. Relationslinkene er præsenteret som prædikater og objekt-størrelserne som disse prædikaters argumenter.

Eks. med sætningen: ” bogen er på bordet”. Relationen mellem bogen og bordet er repræsenteret ved prædikatet ”på”. Prædikatet ”på” forbinder argumenterne, her i form af de to koncepter ”Bog” og ”bord”, i det mentale og giver sætningen en form for mening.

Når man har et prædikat og et antal argumenter forbundet på denne måde, kaldes det en proposition.

Ved at bytte om på ordene eks. ”på (bog, bord)” kan man stadig få den samme mening frem, og det gøres derved klart, at vi har at gøre med det mentale indhold af sætningen eller af ord og ikke de enkelte ord.

Prædikater kan have flere roller i en proposition:

          De kan være links til relationer: Mary hit john with the stick- hit (Mary, John, stick)

          De kan være et træk ved et konceptuelt object: The stick was hard- hard(stick)

Sachs testede hvordan vi husker propositioner, og kom frem til, at vi hurtigt mister information omkring den ordrette rækkefølge af ord, som vi hører eller læser, men vi bibeholder meningen. Vi rekonstruerer, hvad der må være blevet sagt, baseret på den mening, som er lagret i propositionerne. Folk husker altså hvilke meningsenheder de har set, de basale semantiske enheder, men ikke den nøjagtige udformning af sætningen.

Jo flere meningsenheder der er i en sætning, jo længere tager det at læse den. Den tid det tager at læse en sætning stiger lineært med antallet af propositioner i en sætning.

Skemaer (frames/scripts)

Schemata og scripts

Det lader til, at man ved processering af en historie relaterer den information, som historien indeholder, til relevant struktureret viden, som er lagret i langtidshukommelsen. Vores viden inkluderer komplekse relationer mellem objekter, koncepter og hændelser- temporal, spatial og kausale forhold. Den mest almindelige brugte konstrukt for at redegøre for viden organisering er skema.

Skemaer er velintegrerede stykker af fælles viden omkring verden, hændelser, folk, relationer, objekter og handlinger, som er organiserede som blokke af information, som er lagret i langtidshukommelsen. Skemaer muliggør, at vi forstår ny information og lagrer den i det allerede eksisterende videnssystem. Det er abstraktioner som tillader nogle objekter eller hændelser at blive tilskrevet generelle kategorier. De er modeller af den eksterne verden.

Bartlett var den første der sagde, at skemaer spiller en vigtig rolle i bestemmelsen af, hvad vi husker fra historier. Ifølge ham er hukommelsen ikke kun påvirket af den præsenterede historie, men også af deltagernes lager af relevant før-skematisk viden. Han mente, at folks forståelse og erindringer om hændelser blev formet af deres forventninger, og foreslog at disse forventninger er mentalt repræsenteret i en skematisk form. Eks. gav han nogle englændere en nordamerikansk folkehistorie, som de skulle huske og genkalde på forskellige tidspunkter. Historien indeholdt en kausal struktur der var modsat vesterlige forventninger. Han fandt, at englænderne ved genkaldelse rekonstruerede historien frem for at huske den ordret, og at denne rekonstruktion var i overensstemmelse med et vesterligt verdenssyn.  Dette kaldes rationalisering: Den skematiske viden de har omkring deres egen kultur forvrænger genkaldelsen af hvad de har læst, og laver fejl.

Skemaer kan hjælpe os med at forstå ting, men de kan også mislede os. Hvis der er noget der mangler i situationen så udfylder vi bare skemaet.  Det skema der passer bedst til situationen, giver os et bud på hvad der foregår

Brewer og Trevens: forsøg med kontor. 30 personer iagttager kontoret og mener derefter fx at kunne huske, at der var bøger til stede, selvom disse ikke var der – forsøget fortæller om et skema, der påvirker personens forventninger og hukommelse af stimuli. En persons hukommelse omkring egenskaber ved en lokation er stærkt influeret af denne persons skema for lokationen.

Skemaerne i langtidshukommelsen refereres ofte som scripts  eller frames. Scripts har at gøre med viden omkring hændelser og konsekvenser ved hændelser. Eks. Schank & Abelson refererede til et restaurant script, som indeholder information om de normale hændelsessekvenser som er involveret i det et spise på en restaurant. De mente, at vi må have forudsigelige skemaer, som gør os i stand til at drage slutninger og til at udfylde de hændelsesaspekter som er implicitte.  Denne form for skemaer kaldes scripts.

Frames er videns struktur som relaterer til nogle aspekter af verden, som indeholder fastsat strukturel information (eks. har gulve og vægge).

Billedlige repræsentationer / visuelle forestillingsbilleder (Visual imagery)

Visuelle billeder er analoge repræsentationer. Mange mener, at meget af vores viden er tænkt i billeder. Der er bevis for billedlige repræsentationer. 

Ifølge hypotesen om Funktionel-ækvivalens mener man, at mentale forestillingsbilleder er funktionelt ækvivalente til visuel perception. Mentale forestillingsbilleder er ikke eksakte kopier af perceptionen af de originale objekter, men er analoge til disse perceptioner.

– Mentale transformationer af og bevægelse over billeder er lig sådanne transformationer og bevægelse af reelle objekter.

– Spatial relationer i mentale forestillingsbilleder er analoge til relationer i det reelle fysiske rum.

– Visuel forestillingsbilleder er funktionel lig perceptionen af rigtige objekter- det er de samme hjernesystemer, der lader til at være involveret når man perciperer et objekt og forestiller sig det.

Denne hypotese om at der er tætte links mellem forestillingsbilleder og perception er testet ved mental rotation, billedlig skalering og billedligscanning.

Image scanning: deltagere skal mentalt scanne et fiktivt kort over eks. en ø. De skal huske kortet så godt, at de kan reproducere det på en tegning. De får så et navn på et objekt (eks. elefant) og bliver bedt om at forestille sig kortet og fokusere på, hvor elefanten er placeret på kortet. 5 sekunder senere får de navn på et andet objekt (træ), som er placeret væk fra elefanten, og bliver bedt om at scanne fra elefanten til træet ved at forestille sig en flyvende sort prik. Man fandt frem til, at scanningstiden fra elefanten til træet er relateret til den reelle distance mellem objekterne på kortet. Scanningstiden øges altså proprtionelt med den faktiske distance mellem to punkter. Resultaterne giver støtte til ideen om at billeder har specielle spatiale egenskaer, som er analoge til objekter og aktiviteter i den virkelige verden. 

Paivio’s dual-coding theory:

Teorien bestemmer den basale forskel mellem billedlig og propositionelle repræsentationer.

Der er to kodningssystemer for repræsentation og processering af information (for viden). Et verbalt system, som har at gøre med lingvistisk information, og lagrer det i verbal form, og et ikke-verbalt system, som tager sig af billedbaseret processering og information. Hvert af disse systemer er endvidere inddelt i sensomotoriske subsystemer, som processerer enten verbal eller ikke-verbal information i de forskellige sansemodaliteter. Begge systemer har basale repræsentations enheder.

I er verbalt subsystem sker der det, at når et talt ord processeres genkendes det af et logogen for den auditoriske lyd af ordet. Logogens er modalitetsspecifikke, da der er forskellig logogener for identificering af den talte lyd ”sne” og dets visuelle form bogstaverne ”s-n-e”.

I det ikke-verbale system har man imagens. De er basale enheder, der identificerer og repræsenterer billeder i de forskellige sensormotoriske modaliteter.

Det verbale og ikke-verbale system kommunikerer via relationer mellem imagener og logogerner. Eks. hvis man ser en hund, vil den genkendes af et imagen og et link mellem dette imagen og det auditoriske logogen for ordet hund kan aktivere ordet hund.

Subsystemerne er altså internt forbundne af referentielle links mellem logogener og imagener.

Paivio fandt støtte for hans teori idet, at han viste nogle deltagere et sæt billeder eller en liste af ord til at huske. Hvis billeder er af kendte objekter, så nævner deltagerne dem typisk spontant imens, at de prøver at huske dem. De koder dem altså ved at bruge både det verbale og ikke-verbale system. i kontrast hertil huskes ord primært kun ved brug af det verbale system. Derfor skulle folk huske billeder bedre end ord pga. Indflydelsen fra begge systemer. Dette fandt han frem til var rigtigt ved freecall og genkendelsesøvelser. Endvidere huskes konkrete ord bedre end abstrakte ord, da man kan danne billeder af konkrete ord (elefant), men ikke abstrakte (dyd).

Disse antagelser understøttes af vores forsøg med Dual Task og Visual Long Term Memory.

I en dual task vil der forekomme interferens, hvis verbal respons interfererer med verbal kodning(fx tælle baglæns mens man husker en ordliste). Hvis de skal huske sætningen og pege så er de gode. Hvis de skal huske og sige det højt er de dårlige. Hvis man skal bruge den samme kode til flere ting forekommer der interferens. 

Neuropsychological evidence, Kosslyn , WM-LTM

Kosslyns theory of imagery (teori om forestillingsbilleder) er blevet specificeret I en computeriseret model. Essensen i hans teori er, at der er tætte ligheder mellem visuelle forestillingsbilleder og visuel perception.

Kosslyn mente, at disse forestillings repræsentationer formes i et topografisk organiseret hjerneområde, hvilket betyder, at den spatiale organisering af hjerneaktivitet der sker ved en forestillet repræsentation, ligner det samme som det der sker ved det objekt man forestiller sig.

Ens hjerneområder aktiveres ved visuelle forestillingsbilleder og ved visuel perception. Ifølge Kosslyn skabes forestillede repræsentationer i primær visuel cortex.

Working memory har to subsystemer: den artikulatoriske loop (fonologisk sløjfe-verbal), og den visio-spatiale sketchpad ( Indre blik). Kosslyn mener, at mentale repræsentationer af et objekt skabes på den visuo-spatiale sketchpad. Disse billeder kommer fra LTM repræsentationer, der både henter information fra billedfiler, som kan repræsentere et helt objekt eller dele af et objekt. Eks. på en billedfil er skelet billede: forestiller den basale form af et objekt, men mangler mange af objektets detaljer.  Detaljerede dele er lagret i andre billedfiler.

Endvidere er der propositionelle filer, som lister trækkene ved et objekt, (eks. en and har vinger, næb etc.), og den grundlæggende del af anden (eks. dens krop). Den grundlæggende del er den del, der er central for repræsentationen af et objekt og vil blive linket til skelet billedfilen af objektet.

En detaljeret udgave af en mental repræsentation kommer frem ved at lægge information fra billedfiler og propositionsfiler sammen. Stedet hvor denne sammenlægning i sidste ende finder sted er visuo-spatiale sketchpad i WM.

Kosslyn ser på den visiospatiale skectchpad, hvor visuelle billeder formes, som et spatialt medium, eller visuel buffer, som kan sammenlignes med et fjernsyn eller computerskærm. Det er en  begrænset skærm, som vi kan konstruere vores mentale forestillingsbilleder på i henhold til de skeletbilleder og udsagn vi har.

Mediet har 4 essentielle egenskaber:

1)      Det fungerer som et rum, idet at det bevarer de spatiale relationer af det objekt det repræsenterer. Det spatiale medium er også som et fysisk rum, idet at dets udstrækning/ størrelse er begrænset. Endvidere har det en fast form.

2)      Det repræsenterer ikke nødvendigvis billeder ved en enkel opløsning. Den højeste opløsning af et billede findes i midten af mediet. Dette er lig med det visuelle felt, som også har højest opløsning i midten af en set scene.

3)      Mediet har en struktur, der kan skjule detaljer ved små billeder.

Patient L.H.

Farah viste, at mental forestilling og egentlig perception til en vis grad kan være adskilte. Patient L.H. kunne godt se, men havde vanskeligheder med mentale forestillinger. Dette blev bevist i et forsøg, der både indeholdte imaginationsopgaver og visuo-spatiale opgaver. L.H. var lige så god som kontrolpersoner til de visuo-spatiale opgaver, men langt dårligere til imaginationsopgaverne – de to opgaver kræver altså to forskellige repræsentationer og derfor også forskellige hjerneområder, hvilket altså står i modsætning til Kosslyns fund. Farahs forsøg viste at visuelle forestillingsbilleder både er visuelle og spatiale.

OVERSIGT/STIKORD:

Hvordan er verden repræsenteret i vores hoveder? 

Interne repræsentationer:  

Eksterne repræsentationer:

Analoge repræsentations: er ofte grafiske notationer så som kort, diagrammer og billeder.

Symbolske repræsentations: der er et arbitrært forhold mellem symbolet og det det repræsenterer – fx ord.

Fx. Krak rejseplan: kort over ruten: analog rep., vejbeskrivelse: symbolsk rep. 

Billeder vs. ord repræsentation:

Billeder:

Er analog til det de repræsenterer I den virkelige verden

De viser korrekte attributter(fx form) som ligner de egenskaber og forhold der findes I verden.

Billeder indfanger konkret og rumlig information

Billedlige repræsentationer viser alle egenskaber samtidigt.

Evidens: når folk bliver bedt om at se om en figur der er drejet er magen til en anden figur, er der en propotionel sammenhæng mellem tid og antal mentale rotationer. Hvilket henviser til at vi forstiller os det i billeder.  

Ord:

Er symbolske repræsentationer.

Forholdet mellem verden og repræsentationen af verden er arbitrært.

Ord indfanger abstrakte og kategoriel information på en symbolsk made.

Ord repræsentationer indfanger sædvanligvis information sekvensvis, I overensstemmelse de arbitrære regler der er for det symbolske system at benytte ord.

Propotionelle repræsentationer:

Proposition (udsagn, prœmis??) – repræsenterer konceptuelle objekter og relationer.

Ikke specifik til et bestemt sprog (det samme for Dansk og kinesisk)

Ikke modalitetsspecifik.

En fundamental sprogkode bruges til at repræsentere al mental information. (det universelt underliggende) 

Propositioner:

Prædikat kalkyle?

Et logisk system der bruges til at udtrykke proportitioner

Relationer repræsenteres som prœdikater  og objekt entiteter som argumenter fx hunden er I bilen, hvor ‘I’ er prædikat og ‘hund’/’bil’ er argumenter/begreber

i(hund/bil) – omhandler det mentale indhold ikke ordene. 

Forsøg har vist at personer husker prædikaterne men ikke nødvendigvis rækkefølgen. Læsehastigheden er proportional med antallet af propotioner I en sætning.  

Skemaer (frames/scripts)

Definition:

Skemaer er strukturerede samlinger af koncepter der involverer ’fælles’ viden der bruges til at repræsentere hele eller blot dele af begivenheder, percepter (den mentale repræsentation efter en perception), situationer, relationer, og objekter. Fx. Straffespark situationen, ville være meget besværlig at beskrive med propotioner, men vi har et skema for hvad denne komplekse situation er.  

Bartlett (1932) forståelse og erindringen af begivenheder formes af forventninger. Skemaer påvirker forståelse og hukommelse. Et skema tillader partikulære objekter og begivenheder at blive tilskrevet generelle kategorier. Når der bruges skemaer til processering af information, bestemmes der hvilket skema er den bedste model for den indkommende information.

Evidens: billede af kontor, hvor genstande skal gengives. Folk gengiver også ting der ikke var på billedet, fordi det passer godt ind i skeamaet af et kontor. Hvilket hentyder til at man har nogle standard kategorier for specifikke ting. (assimilerer/akumendere) 

Diskussion: Så er mentale repræsentationer symbolske eller analoge?

Evidens taler for begge dele.

For analog:

En analog repræsentation er ikke fuldstængig tilsvarende med den ydre verden, men den er funktionelt equivalent med den. Mentale transformationer er tilsvarende virkelige transformationer (rotation af figur.) rumlige relationer er tilsvarende i virkeligheden og mentalt. De samme hjerneområde, er tilsyneladdende aktive ved mentale forestillingsbilleder og percipering.

Evidens i mod analog repræsentation: kanin/and billedet (det andet billede kan ikke fremkaldes mentalt.) (louise: hvilket tyder på at man gemmer meningen ikke den præcise afbildning) verbale labels og tvetydige billeorganisering og genkaldelse.  

Dual coding theory (Paivio):

et verbal og et non verbalt kodningssystem der er forbundet. Begge er specialiseret i kodning, opbevaring, og internt forbundne. Logogener – modalitet specifik enhed for ord genkendelse, Imagener – basis enhed der repræsenterer billeder. Evidens: billeder huskes bedre end ord fordi de bliver dobbeltkodet (man ser billedet træ og tænker træ højt inde i hovedet. Konkrete huske bedre end abstrakte, fordi de lettere kan dobbeltkodet – det er svært at lave mentale billeder over abstrakte ting. Brook: interferens studie verbal respons interfereres med verbal kodning. Og visuo-spatiel respons interfereres med tilsvarende kodning. PET scaning viser at der er samme hjerneområder der er aktive når et F ses og når det forestilles. 

Perspektivering

Kosslyns model: arbejdshukommelse – LTM

Stemmer godt overens med at der er to undersystemer – et verbalt og et indre blik. Det indre blik skaber skellet-billeder og detaljerne sættes på ud fra propotionelle repræsentationer, der igen hentes fra det mentalt-visuelle opbevaringen.  

Patient HL: kunne forestille sig billeder men ikke genkende objekter! Derfor må der være en adskillese mellem de to systemer. 

Hukommelse og indlæring

Vidensrepræsentation

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