Woolfe, R., Strawbridge, S., Douglas, B. & Dryden, W. (2009). Handbook of Counselling Psychology, 3.ed. London: SAGE. Del I, II og IV.
Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) developed from the ego-psychology and focuses on the present thoughts and perceptions influence on emotion. Especially Beck.
Behavioural therapy started with Pavlov, Thorndike and Watson and its focus is on the rules for behaviour in relation to reinforcement and punishment and token economics.
Cognitive behavioural therapy emerged in the 1970s and takes the best from both worlds of cognitive therapy and behavioural therapy. Today there are newer methods in CBT like mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) that focuses on accepting thoughts rather than changing them, the thoughts and feelings are not labelled right or wrong.
The thought-emotion cycle; is when thoughts and feelings is experienced as a single phenomenon, that is reinforced. Examples could be mind reading (everyone judges me), crystal-ball gazing (all my life has been terrible), and emotional reasoning (I feel stupid, therefore I am stupid). There are different layers of meaning,. From thoughts you can find schemas and from them you can find useless assumptions that reinforces behaviour.
In CBT, the relationship between the client and the therapist is very important and it focuses on the details that can create fractures in the relation.
Formulations are created about the client, his childhood, the problems and thoughts, so that there are an agreement about the problem and the way to solve it, as an alternative to categorizing the pathology in a diagnose.
There is always a deeper structure in the therapy sessions that the therapist makes clear for the client, both at every session and over the entire treatment period.
Socratic method and guided discovery; when the therapist asks questions to the client in a guided matter that they earlier knew the answer to, to come to a new understanding. This is a method that is used through the entire treatment.
In CBT, a lot of different methods are used, but the focus is on the client-therapist relationship. An important method could be to make homework for the client. This can be useful both with positive and negative reactions from the client.